Depressive Episode

What is a depressive episode?

The definition of a depressive episode is a period of depression that persists for at least two weeks. During a depressive episode, a person will typically experience low or depressed mood and/or loss of interest in most activities, as well as a number of other symptoms of depression, such as tiredness, changes in appetite, feelings of worthlessness and recurrent thoughts of death. The length of a depressive episode varies, but the average duration is thought to be six to eight months.

Depression is a common illness, and many people will experience one or more episodes of depression in their lifetime. While people of all races and ages can experience depressive episodes, they tend to be more common among women than men. People who have a history of depression, other mental health conditions such as bipolar disorder or anxiety, or chronic physical conditions such as diabetes, chronic pain or multiple sclerosis, also have a higher risk of experiencing a depressive episode.

The severity of a depressive episode varies; it may be classified as major or minor, depending on the number of symptoms and degree of impairment (social, domestic and work) experienced. Regardless of the severity, all depressive episodes should be taken seriously and treated promptly by a professional healthcare provider. Effective treatment, which typically involves medication and/or therapy, for depression is available.

Without appropriate treatment, the risk of experiencing further episodes of depression is thought to be higher. The risk of another depressive episode occurring seems to increase with every new episode, with each one likely to last longer and be more severe than the previous one. Timely treatment can alleviate the symptoms of depression and help shorten the duration of any future episodes.  read more

The Witches || Sweet But Psycho

Lyrics
Oh, she’s sweet but a psycho
A little bit psycho
At night she’s screamin’
“I’m-ma-ma-ma out my mind”

Oh, she’s hot but a psycho
So left but she’s right, though
At night she’s screamin’
“I’m-ma-ma-ma out my mind”

She’ll make you curse, but she a blessin’
She’ll rip your shirt within a second
You’ll be coming back, back for seconds
With your plate, you just can’t help it

No, no, you’ll play along
Let her lead you on
You’ll be saying, “No, no”
Then saying, “Yes, yes, yes”
‘Cause she messin’ with your head

Oh, she’s sweet but a psycho
A little bit psycho
At night she’s screamin’
“I’m-ma-ma-ma out my mind”

Oh, she’s hot but a psycho
So left but she’s right, though
At night she’s screamin’
“I’m-ma-ma-ma out my mind”

“Grab a cop gun” kinda crazy
She’s poison but tasty
Yeah, people say, “Run, don’t walk away”

‘Cause she’s sweet but a psycho
A little bit psycho
At night she’s screamin’
“I’m-ma-ma-ma out my mind”

See, someone said, “Don’t drink her potions
She’ll kiss your neck with no emotion
When she’s mean, you know you love it
‘Cause she tastes so sweet, don’t sugarcoat it”

No, no, you’ll play along
Let her lead you on
You’ll be saying, “No (no, no, no), no (no)”
Then saying, “Yes, yes, yes”
‘Cause she messin’ with your head (hey)

Oh, she’s sweet but a psycho
A little bit psycho
At night she’s screamin’
“I’m-ma-ma-ma out my mind”

Oh, she’s hot but a psycho
So left but she’s right, though
At night she’s screamin’
“I’m-ma-ma-ma out my mind”

“Grab a cop gun” kinda crazy
She’s poison but tasty
Yeah, people say, “Run, don’t walk away”

‘Cause she’s sweet but a psycho
A little bit psycho
At night she’s screamin’
“I’m-ma-ma-ma out my mind”

You’re just like me, you’re out your mind
I know it’s strange, we’re both the crazy kind
You’re tellin’ me that I’m insane
Boy, don’t pretend that you don’t love the pain

Oh, she’s sweet but a psycho
A little bit psycho
At night she’s screamin’
“I’m-ma-ma-ma out my mind”

Oh, she’s hot but a psycho
So left but she’s right, though
At night she’s screamin’
“I’m-ma-ma-ma out my mind”
“Grab a cop gun” kinda crazy
She’s poison but tasty
Yeah, people say, “Run, don’t walk away”

‘Cause she’s sweet but a psycho
A little bit psycho
At night she’s screamin’
“I’m-ma-ma-ma out my mind”

Source: Musixmatch

Songwriters: Henry Russell Walter / William Lobban Bean / Madison Emiko Love / Andreas Haukeland / Amanda Koci
Sweet but Psycho lyrics © Artist Publishing Group Gmr, Max Cut Publishing

Artist: Ava Max
Album: Sweet but Psycho
Released: 2018
Key: D♭ Major hooktheory.com

What Is Illness Anxiety Disorder?

Previously known as hypochondria

Previously called hypochondriasis or hypochondria, illness anxiety disorder (IAD) is a mental health condition in which a person strongly believes they have or will develop a serious or life-threatening illness, though they show little to no symptoms. This feeling persists even when tests or examinations show they do not have a serious condition.

Illness anxiety disorder is common, and may affect up to 10% of the general adult population.

 

Understanding Illness Anxiety Disorder

Hypochandriasis was removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) in part because of the stigma attached to the words hypochondriasis and hypochondria. Upon hearing the word hypochondriac, there is often a false assumption that the person living with the condition is “faking it” and other harmful misconceptions that lead to the illness being dismissed or stigmatized.  read more

What Are Dissociative Disorders?

Dissociative disorders involve problems with memory, identity, emotion, perception, behavior and sense of self. Dissociative symptoms can potentially disrupt every area of mental functioning.

Examples of dissociative symptoms include the experience of detachment or feeling as if one is outside one’s body, and loss of memory or amnesia. Dissociative disorders are frequently associated with previous experience of trauma.

There are three types of dissociative disorders:

  • Dissociative identity disorder
  • Dissociative amnesia
  • Depersonalization/derealization disorder

The Sidran Institute, which works to help people understand and cope with traumatic stress and dissociative disorders, describes the phenomenon of dissociation and the purpose it may serve as follows:

Dissociation is a disconnection between a person’s thoughts, memories, feelings, actions or sense of who he or she is. This is a normal process that everyone has experienced. Examples of mild, common dissociation include daydreaming, highway hypnosis or “getting lost” in a book or movie, all of which involve “losing touch” with awareness of one’s immediate surroundings.

During a traumatic experience such as an accident, disaster or crime victimization, dissociation can help a person tolerate what might otherwise be too difficult to bear. In situations like these, a person may dissociate the memory of the place, circumstances or feelings about the overwhelming event, mentally escaping from the fear, pain and horror. This may make it difficult to later remember the details of the experience, as reported by many disaster and accident survivors.  read more

Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy

What is Munchausen syndrome by proxy?

Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSP) is a mental illness. It is also a form of child abuse. It affects caregivers, especially caregivers of children. It is also known as factitious disorder by proxy. Mothers of small children are most often affected by this condition. Fathers or other caregivers can have it as well.

Someone suffering from MSP will act as though the person under his or her care is sick. They often will falsify medical information. They may lie to medical professionals about the health or condition of the person in their care. They do this to gain sympathy or for attention.

Someone who has MSP may purposely take action to make their child sick. They knowingly will expose the child to painful or risky medical procedures, even surgeries. They may deliberately create symptoms in a child. They can do this by withholding food, poisoning or suffocating the child, giving the child inappropriate medicines, or withholding prescribed medicines. Creating these situations can put the child at extreme risk.

Common illnesses or symptoms that caregivers take MSP victims to the doctor for include:

  • Failure to thrive
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Seizures
  • Breathing difficulty and asthma
  • Infections
  • Allergic reactions
  • Fevers of unknown origins
  • Other illnesses that require immediate emergency care

Those with MSP are not discouraged by the cost of medical treatments. They don’t worry about how they will manage the bills. Instead, they believe driving up a large hospital bill reinforces the perception that they are doing everything they can for their child. They think others will see them as even better caretakers.  read more

Factitious Disorders

Factitious disorder is a mental disorder in which a person acts as if they have a physical or psychological illness when they themselves have created the symptoms. People with this disorder are willing to undergo painful or risky tests to get sympathy and special attention.

What is factitious disorder?

Factitious disorder is a serious mental health disorder in which a person appears sick or produces physical or mental illness. People with factitious disorder deliberately produce symptoms of an illness for the purpose of receiving care and attention in a medical setting. The symptoms aren’t intended to get them practical benefits — the gain is believed to be mainly psychological.

Factitious disorder is considered a mental illness. It’s associated with severe emotional difficulties and patients’ likelihood of harming themselves by continuing to produce more symptoms, resulting in getting themselves unnecessary procedures and surgeries.

What are the types of factitious disorder?

Factitious disorders are of two types:

  • Factitious disorder imposed on self: This type includes the falsifying of psychological or physical signs or symptoms. An example of a psychological factitious disorder is mimicking behavior that is typical of a mental illness, such as schizophrenia. The person may appear confused, make absurd statements, and report hallucinations (the experience of sensing things that are not there; for example, hearing voices).
  • Factitious disorder imposed on another: People with this disorder produce or fabricate symptoms of illness in others under their care: children, elderly adults, disabled persons or pets. It most often occurs in mothers (although it can occur in fathers) who intentionally harm their children in order to receive attention. The diagnosis is not given to the victim, but rather to the perpetrator.  read more

Eating Disorders

Overview

There is a commonly held misconception that eating disorders are a lifestyle choice. Eating disorders are actually serious and often fatal illnesses that are associated with severe disturbances in people’s eating behaviors and related thoughts and emotions. Preoccupation with food, body weight, and shape may also signal an eating disorder. Common eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder.

Signs and Symptoms

Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is a condition where people avoid food, severely restrict food, or eat very small quantities of only certain foods. They also may weigh themselves repeatedly. Even when dangerously underweight, they may see themselves as overweight.

There are two subtypes of anorexia nervosa: a restrictive subtype and a binge-purge subtype.

Restrictive: People with the restrictive subtype of anorexia nervosa severely limit the amount and type of food they consume.

Binge-Purge: People with the binge-purge subtype of anorexia nervosa also greatly restrict the amount and type of food they consume. In addition, they may have binge-eating and purging episodes—eating large amounts of food in a short time followed by vomiting or using laxatives or diuretics to get rid of what was consumed.

Anorexia nervosa can be fatal. It has an extremely high death (mortality) rate compared with other mental disorders. People with anorexia are at risk of dying from medical complications associated with starvation. Suicide is the second leading cause of death for people diagnosed with anorexia nervosa.

If you or someone you know is in crisis and needs immediate help, call the toll-free National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (NSPL) at 1-800-273-TALK (8255), 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

Symptoms include:

  • Extremely restricted eating
  • Extreme thinness (emaciation)
  • A relentless pursuit of thinness and unwillingness to maintain a normal or healthy weight
  • Intense fear of gaining weight
  • Distorted body image, a self-esteem that is heavily influenced by perceptions of body weight and shape, or a denial of the seriousness of low body weight

Other symptoms may develop over time, including:

  • Thinning of the bones (osteopenia or osteoporosis)
  • Mild anemia and muscle wasting and weakness
  • Brittle hair and nails
  • Dry and yellowish skin
  • Growth of fine hair all over the body (lanugo)
  • Severe constipation
  • Low blood pressure
  • Slowed breathing and pulse
  • Damage to the structure and function of the heart
  • Brain damage
  • Multiorgan failure
  • Drop in internal body temperature, causing a person to feel cold all the time
  • Lethargy, sluggishness, or feeling tired all the time
  • Infertility

Bulimia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is a condition where people have recurrent and frequent episodes of eating unusually large amounts of food and feeling a lack of control over these episodes. This binge-eating is followed by behavior that compensates for the overeating such as forced vomiting, excessive use of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, excessive exercise, or a combination of these behaviors. People with bulimia nervosa may be slightly underweight, normal weight, or over overweight.

Symptoms include:

  • Chronically inflamed and sore throat
  • Swollen salivary glands in the neck and jaw area
  • Worn tooth enamel and increasingly sensitive and decaying teeth as a result of exposure to stomach acid
  • Acid reflux disorder and other gastrointestinal problems
  • Intestinal distress and irritation from laxative abuse
  • Severe dehydration from purging of fluids
  • Electrolyte imbalance (too low or too high levels of sodium, calcium, potassium, and other minerals) which can lead to stroke or heart attack  read more

Paranoid Personality Disorder

What is paranoid personality disorder (PPD)?

PPD is a long-term mental health condition. PPD causes you to be suspicious, distrusting, and hostile toward others. These thoughts and behaviors can cause problems with your relationships and daily activities.

What causes PPD?

The cause may not be known. Your risk is higher if you have a family history of PPD, delusions, or schizophrenia. You are also at risk if you were abused or neglected as a child.

What are the symptoms of PPD?

You may have PPD if at least 5 of the following are true:

  • You do not easily feel empathy (know how someone else feels). You often show no emotion when someone is upset. It is hard for you to have close relationships. You have trouble creating direction in your life. You do not have a sense of your own identity.
  • You think other people will harm, trick, or take advantage of you. You think your friends are not loyal or have let you down. You suspect your partner has been unfaithful. You search for proof that your friends or partner cannot be trusted.
  • You are nervous about talking to others. You are afraid they will use the information against you. You think certain people are trying to insult you, make you look bad, or threaten your reputation. You hear a person say one thing, but you think he or she means something else. You are defensive when others make comments. You argue, pick fights, or get angry.
  • You often hold grudges. You cannot forgive people you think tried to hurt you. You may see certain people as your enemies. You may try to take legal action against them.  read more

Mania

Mania

Mania is a condition in which you display an over-the-top level of activity or energy, mood or behavior. This elevation must be a change from your usual self and be noticeable by others. Symptoms include feelings of invincibility, lack of sleep, racing thoughts and ideas, rapid talking and having false beliefs or perceptions.
Abnormal manic behavior is behavior that stands out. It’s over-the-top behavior that other people can notice. The behavior could reflect an extreme level of happiness or irritation. For example, you could be extremely excited about an idea for a new healthy snack bar. You believe the snack could make you an instant millionaire but you’ve never cooked a single meal in your life, don’t know a thing about how to develop a business plan and have no money to start a business. read more