Category: Dissociative disorders
Catatonic schizophrenia is a subtype of schizophrenia that experts now consider obsolete. Experts no longer recognize it as a specific condition, and instead, attach catatonia as an additional feature when diagnosing schizophrenia. Catatonia is sometimes dangerous, but is usually very treatable with medication or other methods.
What is catatonic schizophrenia?
“Catatonic schizophrenia” is a subtype of schizophrenia that includes catatonia as a key feature. Experts no longer recognize it as a diagnosis, making this name obsolete. Today, experts recognize schizophrenia as a specific disease and a spectrum of disorders. Healthcare providers regard catatonia as an important syndrome to consider and treat, especially when it happens with schizophrenia.
The American Psychiatric Association removed catatonic schizophrenia from its list of official diagnoses when updating to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published in 2013. The World Health Organization (WHO) removed “catatonic schizophrenia” from the International Classification of Diseases when updating to the 11th edition (ICD-11) in 2019.
What is catatonia?
Catatonia is a syndrome — a collection of signs and symptoms — where your brain doesn’t manage muscle movement signals as it should and you behave abnormally. It happens with many other conditions, but schizophrenia is frequently associated with catatonia. Once thought to be the only condition associated with catatonia, it’s now known that bipolar disorder is more commonly associated with catatonia and that catatonia occurs alongside a number of medical and mental health conditions.
There are three main forms of catatonia: excited, withdrawn and mixed.
- Excited/hyperkinetic: This form involves increased movement (such as in the form of pacing), agitated behavior, unusual or exaggerated movements, repetitive movements or speaking, or mimicking someone speaking or moving near them.
- Withdrawn/hypokinetic: This form of catatonia is often easier to spot because people with this form of catatonia have very limited responses — or no response at all — to what’s happening around them. They may be mute, show no emotions or facial expressions, hold completely still or stare or stay in an unusual position for an extended period.
- Mixed: This form combines features of hyperkinetic and hypokinetic catatonia.
What is the difference between catatonic schizophrenia and paranoid schizophrenia?
Like “catatonic schizophrenia,” “paranoid schizophrenia” is an obsolete term for a diagnosis that no longer exists. Paranoid schizophrenia was the name for schizophrenia where experts regarded paranoia, delusions and hallucinations as key symptoms. Catatonic schizophrenia is the term for schizophrenia where catatonia is the most dominant feature. more
Intermittent Explosive Disorder: THE MOVIE!
Intermittent explosive disorder (IED)
Intermittent explosive disorder involves repeated, sudden episodes of impulsive, aggressive, violent behavior or angry verbal outbursts in which you react grossly out of proportion to the situation. Road rage, domestic abuse, throwing or breaking objects, or other temper tantrums may be signs of intermittent explosive disorder.
These intermittent, explosive outbursts cause you significant distress, negatively impact your relationships, work and school, and they can have legal and financial consequences.
Intermittent explosive disorder is a chronic disorder that can continue for years, although the severity of outbursts may decrease with age. Treatment involves medications and psychotherapy to help you control your aggressive impulses.
Explosive eruptions occur suddenly, with little or no warning, and usually last less than 30 minutes. These episodes may occur frequently or be separated by weeks or months of nonaggression. Less severe verbal outbursts may occur in between episodes of physical aggression. You may be irritable, impulsive, aggressive or chronically angry most of the time.
Aggressive episodes may be preceded or accompanied by:
- Increased energy
- Racing thoughts
- Chest tightness
The explosive verbal and behavioral outbursts are out of proportion to the situation, with no thought to consequences, and can include:
- Temper tantrums
- Heated arguments
- Slapping, shoving or pushing
- Physical fights
- Property damage
- Threatening or assaulting people or animals
You may feel a sense of relief and tiredness after the episode. Later, you may feel remorse, regret or embarrassment. more
Split (2017) – Hedwig’s Dance Scene
Though Kevin (James McAvoy) has evidenced 23 personalities to his trusted psychiatrist, Dr. Fletcher (Betty Buckley), there remains one still submerged who is set to materialize and dominate all of the others. Compelled to abduct three teenage girls led by the willful, observant Casey, Kevin reaches a war for survival among all of those contained within him — as well as everyone around him — as the walls between his compartments shatter.
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) [formally known as multiple personality disorder]
DID Fact Sheet
What Is Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)?
Dissociative identity disorder (DID), previously referred to as multiple personality disorder, is a dissociative disorder involving a disturbance of identity in which two or more separate and distinct personality states (or identities) control an individual’s behavior at different times. When under the control of one identity, a person is usually unable to remember some of the events that occurred while other personalities were in control. The different identities, referred to as alters, may exhibit differences in speech, mannerisms, attitudes, thoughts and gender orientation. The alters may even present physical differences, such as allergies, right-or-left handedness or the need for eyeglass prescriptions. These differences between alters are often quite striking.
A person living with DID may have as few as two alters or as many as 100. The average number is about 10. Often alters are stable over time, continuing to play specific roles in the person’s life for years. Some alters may harbor aggressive tendencies, directed toward individuals in the person’s environment or toward other alters within the person.
At the time a person living with DID first seeks professional help, he or she is usually not aware of their condition. A very common complaint in people affected by DID is episodes of amnesia, or time loss. These individuals may be unable to remember events in all or part of a proceeding time period. They may repeatedly encounter unfamiliar people who claim to know them, find themselves somewhere without knowing how they got there or find items that they don’t remember purchasing among their possessions.
What Are The Symptoms Of DID?
Often people living with DID are depressed or even suicidal and self-mutilation is common in this group. Approximately one-third of individuals affected complain of auditory or visual hallucinations.
While the causes are unknown, statistics show that DID occurs in 0.01 to 1 percent of the general population. DID is a serious mental illness that occurs across all ethnic groups and all income levels. It affects women nine times more than men.
In addition to experiencing separate identities, individuals living with DID may also experience many other symptoms. Some of these symptoms include:
- Suicidal tendencies.
- Anxiety, panic attacks.
- Alcohol and drug abuse.
- Memory problems.
- Eating disorders.
- Personality change.
- Selective loss of memory.
Never Bothered To Bloom – Folie à Deux (Official Audio Stream Video)
Shared Psychotic Disorder
Shared psychotic disorder (folie à deux) is a rare disorder characterized by sharing a delusion among two or more people in a close relationship. The inducer (primary) who has a psychotic disorder with delusions influences another nonpsychotic individual or more (induced, secondary) based on a delusional belief. It is commonly seen among two individuals, but in rare cases, can include larger groups. For example, it can occur in a family and is called folie à famille.
Jules Baillarger was the first to report this condition in 1860. During the 19th century, psychiatrists in Europe suggested different names. In France, it has been called “folie communiquee“(communicated psychosis) by Baillarger. In German psychiatry, it was named “Induziertes Irresein” by Lehman and Sharfetter. In 1877 Lasegue and Falret coined the term “folie à deux.” The French word “folie à deux” means madness shared by two. In the early 1940s, Gralnick, in his review of 103 cases of folie à deux, described four types of this disorder. He defined it as a psychiatric entity characterized by the transfer of delusions from one person to one or several others who have a close association with the primarily affected person. The four types are as follows:
Folie imposee (imposed psychosis) – Described by Lasegue and Falret in 1877. The delusions are transferred from an individual with psychosis to an individual without psychosis in an intimate relationship. The delusions in the induced individual soon disappear once the two are separated.
Folie simultanee (simultaneous psychosis) – Described by Regis in 1880. Both partners share the psychosis simultaneously. They both have risk factors through long social interactions that predispose them to develop this condition. There are reports of sharing genetic risk factors among siblings.
Folie communiquée (communicated psychosis) – Described by Marandon de Montyel in 1881. This type is similar to folie imposee; however, the delusion in the secondary partner occurs after a long period of resistance. Also, the secondary partner will maintain the delusion even after separation from their partner.
Folie induite (induced psychosis) – Described by Lehmann in 1885. In this type, new delusions are assumed by an individual with psychosis who is being influenced by another individual with psychosis. more
Six Murderers Who Embody the Nine Traits of Narcissism
These six killers perfectly illustrate how narcissism and murder go hand in hand.
Narcissism has become a staple of mainstream media in the last several years. Narcissistic Personality Disorder was officially recognized in 1980 when it was added to the DSM-5. The disorder quickly made its way into mainstream media stories, examining people who manipulate and gaslight those around them to achieve their criminal aspirations.
According to the DSM-5, in order to be diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder, a person must display at least five of the established traits of narcissism. The nine traits of narcissism include:
- Grandiose sense of self-importance
- Sense of entitlement
- Preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love
- Belief they are special and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people or institutions
- Need for excessive admiration
- Interpersonally exploitative behavior
- Lack of empathy
- Envy of others or a belief that others are envious of them
- Demonstration of arrogant and haughty behaviors or attitudes
Not all narcissists become killers but there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that many killers, particularly serial killers, exhibit many of these narcissistic personality traits. The killers in this list each display at least five and, in some cases, all of them. They also provide the perfect example of a murderer who embodies specific traits from the list. more
The Kinks – Acute Schizophrenia Paranoia Blues